Early Online (Volume - 5 | Issue - 1)

Differences between anorexia patients and participants of the Minnesota hunger experiment: Consequences for treatment

Published on: 29th January, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8915412109

The hunger experiment was carried out in 1944 by Anselm Keys and others in the American city of Minnesota. The aim was to investigate the consequences of starvation in order to be able to restore the health of hunger victims of the Second World War. How could they be treated in the best possible way to regain a healthy weight? For this purpose 36 physical and psychosocial healthy young men were selected from a large group of men who refused to serve in the American Army. They were examined very carefully in the period before the hunger experiment which lasted 6 months. In this period they received only two mails a day with half of the number of calories they were used to eat. This period of malinutrition was followed by 3 months of refeeding. Not only their weight recovered quite well, but also the psychosocial consequences of starvation disappeared completely [1]. 
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Estimation of cotinine level among the tobacco users and nonusers: A cross-sectional study among the Indian population

Published on: 15th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9038784037

Background: Epidemiological studies in smokers indicate a dose-response relationship between the number of cigarettes smoked per day and the risk of developing certain smoking related diseases. The alkaloid nicotine is the major pharmacologically active substance in tobacco. Objective: To estimate the cotinine level excretion in urine among smoked and smokeless tobacco users and nonsmokers among the Indian population. Materials and methods: The study sample consisted of 250 subjects who were apparently healthy, asymptomatic and not using any drug. The study sample was divided into smoked tobacco users (bidi and cigarette), smokeless tobacco users, both smoked and smokeless tobacco users and controls (non-users of tobacco in the past or present). Results: The mean Cotinine level in urine was significantly (p – value < 0.05) more among smoked tobacco users in comparison to smokeless tobacco users and non-users of tobacco. Whereas, the mean Cotinine level in urine was significantly (p – value < 0.05) more among smokeless tobacco users in comparison to non-users of tobacco.
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Drug treatment and rehabilitation in China: Theoretical rationales and current situations

Published on: 18th February, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 8946740322

Global drug use has reached epidemic levels, with approximately 269 million drug users worldwide [1]. Problematic drug use may lead to serious physical, social, and mental health problems. An estimated 167,000 deaths attributed to drug-related disorders worldwide in 2017 [2]. The rising global drug use and its severe adverse consequences make the drug treatment/rehabilitation a top priority for policymakers. In modern China, illicit drug use has raised great concern from both the academia and the public. Nearly 2.15 million Chinese were registered as drug users in 2019 [28]. Drug-related crimes and deaths are also increasing [29]. The current drug treatment programs in China are mainly compulsory, addressing coercion and discipline. However, the effectiveness was found to be low [3]. Situated in the fields of social work, public health, and psychology, Chinese scholars and practitioners have conducted some empirical tests for these drug treatment/rehabilitation programs and already found several effective preventive factors in the programs. However, the existing research on the design and evaluation of Chinese drug treatment/rehabilitation programs rarely investigate the theoretical rationales behind these programs. This study would address three criminological theories that have been applied to explain drug treatment and rehabilitation in Western societies: Differential Association Theory, Social Bonding Theory, and Labeling Theory. Similar theoretical rationales could be learnt and adopted by Chinese programs. 
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Patterns of drugs and alcohol abuse among youth

Published on: 19th March, 2021

OCLC Number/Unique Identifier: 9038789451

The study attempted to answer several questions: Does the cultural and social background of immigrant youth from the Former Soviet Union (FSU) affect their use of addictive substances? Do these youth show distinctive patterns of drug and alcohol abuse? Do the addictive substances used by these teenagers share similar characteristics? Are the patterns of drug abuse and alcohol abuse different? Do students in different educational frameworks demonstrate different consumption patterns? Can “critical moments” explain the presence or absence of alcohol and drug abuse?
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Psychosocial factors among end-stage kidney disease patients receiving hemodialysis treatment in Kumasi, Ghana

Published on: 7th September, 2021

Background: End-Stage Kidney Disease and its maintenance hemodialysis treatment force patients to make several lifestyle changes to cope with this debilitating illness. These changes often trigger the onset of notable psychological distress and depressive symptoms. Furthermore, these negative psychological experiences can undermine the effectiveness of the treatment and consequently worsening the health and quality of life of patients. Objective: The study assessed the psychological well-being among hemodialysis patients in Kumasi Metropolis. Further, it explored the relationship between these psychosocial factors and demographic characteristics.Materials and Methods: 30 hemodialysis patients were recruited from two dialysis units in Kumasi, Ghana. Participants were aged 18 and above and had been on hemodialysis treatment for more than three months. The Hospital Anxiety and Depression scale (HADS) was used to assess depression and anxiety whiles the Multidimensional Scale of Perceived Social Support was used to assess perceived social support of participants. Results: The majority of respondents were males (60%), relative to females. The study revealed that 80% were severely depressed, 20% met the criteria for severe anxiety.  Some participants reported moderate social support 53.3%; perceived social support being inversely correlated with both depression (r = 0.41; n = 30; p < 0.05) and anxiety (r = -0.59; n = 30; p < 0.05). Income levels were inversely correlated with depression (r = -0.41, n = 30; p < 0.05). Conclusion: Findings of the study suggest that the psychological wellbeing of hemodialysis patients is compromised. Social support appears to alleviate depression and anxiety. Implications for patient treatment are discussed.
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Chase out or unfortunate coping strategy? Analysis of urban settlement of the homeless addicts at public parks

Published on: 8th September, 2021

Extant studies have labelled persons-with-addiction and the homeless as ‘invaders’ of public parks, aggressive/violent with psychiatric and medical disorders, a burden to the society, and transmitters of most deadly airborne or chronic diseases. Literature subtly discuses that such people must be chased out of the public. Yet, such studies have not concurrently analyzed from the viewpoint of urban parks users, the persons-with-addiction and the homeless people what needs to be done to improve the situation. Therefore, the study aims to explore whether problematic communities and subcultural factors make the disadvantaged resort to negative copping strategies when their legal means are blocked: how the other park users respond to the homeless drug addicts’ hardship: and the possible suggestions from all the park users. This is done with reference to social disorganization and Sub-culture theory, and through ethnographic research approach (8 months field observation) and in-depth-interviews with 27 participants. Our study found that persons-with-addiction and the homeless are not always aggressive/violent/harmful as they have been labelled. But only disadvantaged individuals who desire to emulate the ideals and ambitions of the middle class but lack resources to achieve such success. Being overwhelmed with such frustrations from their dilemmas, they consider themselves ‘double-failures’ and retreat into drug addiction and find abode in the public spaces. We therefore conclude that persons with addiction and the homeless people are not always violent and criminal persons who are to be chased out of public parks. But only disadvantaged individuals who need help for choosing a negative coping strategy.
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